Raised bogs (German, "Hochmoore", Bavarian "Filze") belong to the most extreme life domains in Middle Europe. The ground contains dying peat (sphagnum) and other plant rests which are unable to decay in that kind of soil, poor on oxygen and high acidic (low pH), causing even more accumulation of growing peat layers (raised peat). They are not effected by groundwater, rich on minerals, instead they derive their water supply and nutrients directly from precipitation ( »ombrotrophic bogs), in other words, they get fed by rain.
Only special species of plants and animals are adapted to these exteme environment conditions, lacking in nutrients, e.g. sundew "Sonnentau" (Drosera spec.) and waterhose "Wasserschlauch (Utricularia spec.). As meat-eating species they developed methods for catching the smallest living beings securing themselves an additional source of "prey feed" nutrients.
Only about 5% of the raised moors in the bogs still remained natural and not effected from the former peat extraction i.e. mining and water drainage. Rare species of water plant and animal biotopes extinguished due to the drying up in the heathland and woodland regions.